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The war then settled into a complex and asymmetric strategic deadlock where all sides struggled to gain the upper hand. The highlight of the conflict became the brutal guerrilla warfare that engulfed much of the Spanish countryside. Both sides committed the worst atrocities of the Napoleonic Wars during this phase of the conflict. The vicious guerrilla fighting in Spain, largely absent from the French campaigns in Central Europe, severely disrupted the French lines of supply and communication. Although France maintained roughly , troops in Iberia during the Peninsular War, the vast majority were tied down to garrison duty and to intelligence operations.

After the invasion of Russia in , the number of French troops in Spain vastly declined as Napoleon needed reinforcements to conserve his strategic position in Europe. By , after scores of battles and sieges throughout Iberia, the Allies had managed to push the French out of the peninsula. The impact of the Napoleonic invasion of Spain and ousting of the Spanish Bourbon monarchy in favour of his brother Joseph had an enormous impact on the Spanish empire. In Spanish America many local elites formed juntas and set up mechanisms to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII of Spain , whom they considered the legitimate Spanish monarch.

The outbreak of the Spanish American wars of independence in most of the empire was a result of Napoleon's destabilizing actions in Spain and led to the rise of strongmen in the wake of these wars. After four years on the sidelines, Austria sought another war with France to avenge its recent defeats. Austria could not count on Russian support because the latter was at war with Britain , Sweden , and the Ottoman Empire in Frederick William of Prussia initially promised to help the Austrians, but reneged before conflict began.

In the early morning of 10 April, leading elements of the Austrian army crossed the Inn River and invaded Bavaria. The early Austrian attack surprised the French; Napoleon himself was still in Paris when he heard about the invasion. In response, Napoleon came up with a plan to cut off the Austrians in the celebrated Landshut Maneuver. On 13 May, Vienna fell for the second time in four years, although the war continued since most of the Austrian army had survived the initial engagements in Southern Germany.

By 17 May, the main Austrian army under Charles had arrived on the Marchfeld. Charles kept the bulk of his troops several miles away from the river bank in hopes of concentrating them at the point where Napoleon decided to cross. The Austrians enjoyed a comfortable numerical superiority over the French throughout the battle. On the first day, Charles disposed of , soldiers against only 31, commanded by Napoleon. The battle was characterized by a vicious back-and-forth struggle for the two villages of Aspern and Essling, the focal points of the French bridgehead. By the end of the fighting, the French had lost Aspern but still controlled Essling.

A sustained Austrian artillery bombardment eventually convinced Napoleon to withdraw his forces back onto Lobau Island. Both sides inflicted about 23, casualties on each other.

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After the setback at Aspern-Essling, Napoleon took more than six weeks in planning and preparing for contingencies before he made another attempt at crossing the Danube. Napoleon finished off the battle with a concentrated central thrust that punctured a hole in the Austrian army and forced Charles to retreat. Austrian losses were very heavy, reaching well over 40, casualties.

In the Kingdom of Holland , the British launched the Walcheren Campaign to open up a second front in the war and to relieve the pressure on the Austrians. The British army only landed at Walcheren on 30 July, by which point the Austrians had already been defeated. The Walcheren Campaign was characterized by little fighting but heavy casualties thanks to the popularly dubbed " Walcheren Fever ". Over British troops were lost in a bungled campaign, and the rest withdrew in December Emperor Francis wanted to wait and see how the British performed in their theatre before entering into negotiations with Napoleon.

Once it became apparent that the British were going nowhere, the Austrians agreed to peace talks. Metternich and Archduke Charles had the preservation of the Habsburg Empire as their fundamental goal, and to this end they succeeded by making Napoleon seek more modest goals in return for promises of friendship between the two powers. Napoleon turned his focus to domestic affairs after the war. Hoping to cement the recent alliance with Austria through a family connection, Napoleon married the Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma , daughter of Francis II , who was 18 years old at the time.

On 20 March , Marie Louise gave birth to a baby boy, whom Napoleon made heir apparent and bestowed the title of King of Rome. His son never actually ruled the empire, but historians still refer to him as Napoleon II. The leaders had a friendly personal relationship after their first meeting at Tilsit in By , advisers to Alexander suggested the possibility of an invasion of the French Empire and the recapture of Poland. In an attempt to gain increased support from Polish nationalists and patriots, Napoleon termed the war the Second Polish War —the First Polish War had been the Bar Confederation uprising by Polish nobles against Russia in Polish patriots wanted the Russian part of Poland to be joined with the Duchy of Warsaw and an independent Poland created.

This was rejected by Napoleon, who stated he had promised his ally Austria this would not happen. Napoleon refused to manumit the Russian serfs because of concerns this might provoke a reaction in his army's rear. The serfs later committed atrocities against French soldiers during France's retreat. The Russians avoided Napoleon's objective of a decisive engagement and instead retreated deeper into Russia. A brief attempt at resistance was made at Smolensk in August; the Russians were defeated in a series of battles, and Napoleon resumed his advance.

The Russians again avoided battle, although in a few cases this was only achieved because Napoleon uncharacteristically hesitated to attack when the opportunity arose. Owing to the Russian army's scorched earth tactics, the French found it increasingly difficult to forage food for themselves and their horses.

The Russians eventually offered battle outside Moscow on 7 September: the Battle of Borodino resulted in approximately 44, Russian and 35, French dead, wounded or captured, and may have been the bloodiest day of battle in history up to that point in time. Napoleon's own account was: "The most terrible of all my battles was the one before Moscow. The French showed themselves to be worthy of victory, but the Russians showed themselves worthy of being invincible".

The Russian army withdrew and retreated past Moscow. Napoleon entered the city, assuming its fall would end the war and Alexander would negotiate peace. However, on orders of the city's governor Feodor Rostopchin , rather than capitulation, Moscow was burned. After five weeks, Napoleon and his army left. In early November Napoleon got concerned about loss of control back in France after the Malet coup of After the Battle of Berezina Napoleon managed to escape but had to abandon much of the remaining artillery and baggage train.

On 5 December, shortly before arriving in Vilnius, Napoleon left the army in a sledge. The French suffered in the course of a ruinous retreat, including from the harshness of the Russian Winter. There was a lull in fighting over the winter of —13 while both the Russians and the French rebuilt their forces; Napoleon was able to field , troops. Napoleon assumed command in Germany and inflicted a series of defeats on the Coalition culminating in the Battle of Dresden in August Despite these successes, the numbers continued to mount against Napoleon, and the French army was pinned down by a force twice its size and lost at the Battle of Leipzig.

This was by far the largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars and cost more than 90, casualties in total. The Allies offered peace terms in the Frankfurt proposals in November Napoleon would remain as Emperor of France, but it would be reduced to its "natural frontiers". That meant that France could retain control of Belgium, Savoy and the Rhineland the west bank of the Rhine River , while giving up control of all the rest, including all of Spain and the Netherlands, and most of Italy and Germany.

Metternich told Napoleon these were the best terms the Allies were likely to offer; after further victories, the terms would be harsher and harsher. Metternich's motivation was to maintain France as a balance against Russian threats, while ending the highly destabilizing series of wars. Napoleon, expecting to win the war, delayed too long and lost this opportunity; by December the Allies had withdrawn the offer.

When his back was to the wall in he tried to reopen peace negotiations on the basis of accepting the Frankfurt proposals. The Allies now had new, harsher terms that included the retreat of France to its boundaries, which meant the loss of Belgium. Napoleon would remain Emperor, however he rejected the term. The British wanted Napoleon permanently removed, and they prevailed, but Napoleon adamantly refused. Napoleon withdrew back into France, his army reduced to 70, soldiers and little cavalry; he faced more than three times as many Allied troops.

Napoleon won a series of victories in the Six Days' Campaign , though these were not significant enough to turn the tide. The leaders of Paris surrendered to the Coalition in March Long docile to Napoleon, under Talleyrand's prodding it had turned against him. Napoleon had advanced as far as Fontainebleau when he learned that Paris was lost. When Napoleon proposed the army march on the capital, his senior officers and marshals mutinied. On 4 April, led by Ney , they confronted Napoleon.

Napoleon asserted the army would follow him, and Ney replied the army would follow its generals. While the ordinary soldiers and regimental officers wanted to fight on, without any senior officers or marshals any prospective invasion of Paris would have been impossible. Bowing to the inevitable, on 4 April Napoleon abdicated in favour of his son, with Marie Louise as regent. However, the Allies refused to accept this under prodding from Alexander, who feared that Napoleon might find an excuse to retake the throne.

The Allied Powers having declared that Emperor Napoleon was the sole obstacle to the restoration of peace in Europe, Emperor Napoleon, faithful to his oath, declares that he renounces, for himself and his heirs, the thrones of France and Italy, and that there is no personal sacrifice, even that of his life, which he is not ready to do in the interests of France.

Done in the palace of Fontainebleau, 11 April They gave him sovereignty over the island and allowed him to retain the title of Emperor. Napoleon attempted suicide with a pill he had carried after nearly being captured by the Russians during the retreat from Moscow. Its potency had weakened with age, however, and he survived to be exiled, while his wife and son took refuge in Austria. A few months into his exile, Napoleon learned that his ex-wife Josephine had died in France.

He was devastated by the news, locking himself in his room and refusing to leave for two days. Separated from his wife and son, who had returned to Austria, cut off from the allowance guaranteed to him by the Treaty of Fontainebleau, and aware of rumours he was about to be banished to a remote island in the Atlantic Ocean, [] Napoleon escaped from Elba, in the brig Inconstant on 26 February with men.

The 5th Regiment was sent to intercept him and made contact just south of Grenoble on 7 March Napoleon approached the regiment alone, dismounted his horse and, when he was within gunshot range, shouted to the soldiers, "Here I am. Kill your Emperor, if you wish". The two then marched together towards Paris with a growing army.

On 13 March, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared Napoleon an outlaw. Four days later, Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia each pledged to put , men into the field to end his rule. Napoleon arrived in Paris on 20 March and governed for a period now called the Hundred Days. By the start of June the armed forces available to him had reached ,, and he decided to go on the offensive to attempt to drive a wedge between the oncoming British and Prussian armies.

Wellington's army withstood repeated attacks by the French and drove them from the field while the Prussians arrived in force and broke through Napoleon's right flank. Napoleon returned to Paris and found that both the legislature and the people had turned against him. Realizing his position was untenable, he abdicated on 22 June in favour of his son. When Napoleon heard that Prussian troops had orders to capture him dead or alive, he fled to Rochefort , considering an escape to the United States.

British ships were blocking every port. They also took the precaution of sending a garrison of soldiers to uninhabited Ascension Island , which lay between St. Helena and Europe. Napoleon was moved to Longwood House on Saint Helena in December ; it had fallen into disrepair, and the location was damp, windswept and unhealthy. Napoleon often complained of the living conditions in letters to the governor and his custodian, Hudson Lowe , [] while his attendants complained of "colds, catarrhs , damp floors and poor provisions. With a small cadre of followers, Napoleon dictated his memoirs and grumbled about conditions.

Lowe cut Napoleon's expenditure, ruled that no gifts were allowed if they mentioned his imperial status, and made his supporters sign a guarantee they would stay with the prisoner indefinitely. While in exile, Napoleon wrote a book about Julius Caesar , one of his great heroes.

There were rumours of plots and even of his escape, but in reality no serious attempts were made. Napoleon's personal physician, Barry O'Meara , warned London that his declining state of health was mainly caused by the harsh treatment. Napoleon confined himself for months on end in his damp and wretched habitation of Longwood. In February , Napoleon's health began to deteriorate rapidly, and he reconciled with the Catholic Church.

Napoleon's original death mask was created around 6 May, although it is not clear which doctor created it. On 15 December , a state funeral was held. In , Napoleon's remains were entombed in a porphyry stone sarcophagus in the crypt under the dome at Les Invalides. The cause of his death has been debated. Antommarchi did not sign the official report. In , the diaries of Napoleon's valet, Louis Marchand, were published.

His description of Napoleon in the months before his death led Sten Forshufvud in a paper in Nature to put forward other causes for his death, including deliberate arsenic poisoning. Furthermore, in a book with Ben Weider , noted that Napoleon's body was found to be well preserved when moved in Arsenic is a strong preservative, and therefore this supported the poisoning hypothesis. Forshufvud and Weider observed that Napoleon had attempted to quench abnormal thirst by drinking large amounts of orgeat syrup that contained cyanide compounds in the almonds used for flavouring.

They maintained that the potassium tartrate used in his treatment prevented his stomach from expelling these compounds and that his thirst was a symptom of the poison. Their hypothesis was that the calomel given to Napoleon became an overdose, which killed him and left extensive tissue damage behind. There have been modern studies that have supported the original autopsy finding. All samples had high levels of arsenic, approximately times higher than the current average.

According to these researchers, Napoleon's body was already heavily contaminated with arsenic as a boy, and the high arsenic concentration in his hair was not caused by intentional poisoning; people were constantly exposed to arsenic from glues and dyes throughout their lives. Napoleon was baptised in Ajaccio on 21 July He was piously raised as a Catholic but he never developed much faith. However he had a keen appreciation of the power of organized religion in social and political affairs, and paid a great deal of attention to bending it to his purposes.

He noted the influence of Catholicism's rituals and splendors. Cardinal Fesch performed the wedding. Napoleon was excommunicated by the Catholic Church, but later reconciled with the Church before his death in It solidified the Roman Catholic Church as the majority church of France and brought back most of its civil status. The hostility of devout Catholics against the state had now largely been resolved.

It did not restore the vast church lands and endowments that had been seized during the revolution and sold off. As a part of the Concordat, he presented another set of laws called the Organic Articles. While the Concordat restored much power to the papacy , the balance of church—state relations had tilted firmly in Napoleon's favour. He selected the bishops and supervised church finances. Napoleon and the pope both found the Concordat useful. Similar arrangements were made with the Church in territories controlled by Napoleon, especially Italy and Germany. Napoleon said in April , "Skillful conquerors have not got entangled with priests.

They can both contain them and use them". French children were issued a catechism that taught them to love and respect Napoleon. The Pope was only released in when the Allies invaded France. In January , Napoleon personally forced the Pope to sign a humiliating "Concordat of Fontainebleau". Napoleon emancipated Jews , as well as Protestants in Catholic countries and Catholics in Protestant countries, from laws which restricted them to ghettos , and he expanded their rights to property, worship, and careers. Despite the anti-semitic reaction to Napoleon's policies from foreign governments and within France, he believed emancipation would benefit France by attracting Jews to the country given the restrictions they faced elsewhere.

In an Assembly of Jewish notables was gathered by Napoleon to discuss 12 questions broadly dealing with the relations between Jews, Christians and other issues dealing with the Jewish ability to integrate into the general French society. Later, after the questions were answered in a satisfactory way according to the Emperor, a " great Sanhedrin " was brought together to transform the answers into decisions that would form the basis of the future status of the Jews in France and the rest of the Empire Napoleon was building.

He stated, "I will never accept any proposals that will obligate the Jewish people to leave France, because to me the Jews are the same as any other citizen in our country. It takes weakness to chase them out of the country, but it takes strength to assimilate them". One year after the final meeting of the Sanhedrin, on 17 March , Napoleon placed the Jews on probation. Several new laws restricting the citizenship the Jews had been offered 17 years previously were instituted at that time. However, despite pressure from leaders of a number of Christian communities to refrain from granting Jews emancipation, within one year of the issue of the new restrictions, they were once again lifted in response to the appeal of Jews from all over France.

Historians emphasize the strength of the ambition that took Napoleon from an obscure village to command of most of Europe. During his early schooling years he would be harshly bullied by classmates for his Corsican identity and control of the French language. To withstand the stress he became domineering, eventually developing an inferiority complex. George F. He could rapidly dictate a series of complex commands to his subordinates, keeping in mind where major units were expected to be at each future point, and like a chess master, "seeing" the best plays moves ahead.

Napoleon maintained strict, efficient work habits, prioritizing what needed to be done. He cheated at cards, but repaid the losses; he had to win at everything he attempted. Unlike many generals, Napoleon did not examine history to ask what Hannibal or Alexander or anyone else did in a similar situation.

Critics said he won many battles simply because of luck; Napoleon responded, "Give me lucky generals", arguing that "luck" comes to leaders who recognize opportunity, and seize it. In terms of influence on events, it was more than Napoleon's personality that took effect. He reorganized France itself to supply the men and money needed for wars. At the Battle of Auerstadt in , King Frederick William III of Prussia outnumbered the French by 63, to 27,; however, when he was told, mistakenly, that Napoleon was in command, he ordered a hasty retreat that turned into a rout.

Napoleon has become a worldwide cultural icon who symbolizes military genius and political power. Martin van Creveld described him as "the most competent human being who ever lived". He has been portrayed in hundreds of films and discussed in hundreds of thousands of books and articles. When met in person, many of his contemporaries were surprised by his apparently unremarkable physical appearance in contrast to his significant deeds and reputation, especially in his youth, when he was consistently described as small and thin.

Joseph Farington, who observed Napoleon personally in , commented that "Samuel Rogers stood a little way from me and Denis Davydov met him personally and considered him remarkably average in appearance: "His face was slightly swarthy, with regular features. His nose was not very large, but straight, with a slight, hardly noticeable bend. The hair on his head was dark reddish-blond; his eyebrows and eyelashes were much darker than the colour of his hair, and his blue eyes, set off by the almost black lashes, gave him a most pleasing expression The man I saw was of short stature, just over five feet tall, rather heavy although he was only 37 years old.

During the Napoleonic Wars he was taken seriously by the British press as a dangerous tyrant , poised to invade. Napoleon was mocked in British newspapers as a short tempered small man and he was nicknamed "Little Boney in a strong fit".

Napoleon's Italy: Desmond Gregory

Helena a British island , since he would have most likely been measured with an English yardstick rather than a yardstick of the Old French Regime. He also habitually wore usually on Sundays the blue uniform of a colonel of the Imperial Guard Foot Grenadiers blue with white facings and red cuffs. This was in contrast to the complex uniforms with many decorations of his marshals and those around him. In his later years he gained quite a bit of weight and had a complexion considered pale or sallow, something contemporaries took note of.

Novelist Paul de Kock, who saw him in on the balcony of the Tuileries, called Napoleon "yellow, obese, and bloated". He is fat, rather what we call pot-bellied, and although his leg is well shaped, it is rather clumsy He is very sallow, with light grey eyes, and rather thin, greasy-looking brown hair, and altogether a very nasty, priestlike-looking fellow. He is often portrayed wearing a large bicorne hat with a hand-in-waistcoat gesture—a reference to the painting produced in by Jacques-Louis David.

Napoleon instituted various reforms, such as higher education, a tax code , road and sewer systems, and established the Banque de France , the first central bank in French history. He negotiated the Concordat of with the Catholic Church, which sought to reconcile the mostly Catholic population to his regime. It was presented alongside the Organic Articles , which regulated public worship in France.

In May , he instituted the Legion of Honour , a substitute for the old royalist decorations and orders of chivalry , to encourage civilian and military achievements; the order is still the highest decoration in France. Napoleon participated actively in the sessions of the Council of State that revised the drafts. The development of the code was a fundamental change in the nature of the civil law legal system with its stress on clearly written and accessible law. Other codes " Les cinq codes " were commissioned by Napoleon to codify criminal and commerce law; a Code of Criminal Instruction was published, which enacted rules of due process.

The Napoleonic code was adopted throughout much of Continental Europe, though only in the lands he conquered, and remained in force after Napoleon's defeat. Napoleon said: "My true glory is not to have won forty battles Waterloo will erase the memory of so many victories. Dieter Langewiesche described the code as a "revolutionary project" which spurred the development of bourgeois society in Germany by the extension of the right to own property and an acceleration towards the end of feudalism.

Napoleon reorganized what had been the Holy Roman Empire, made up of more than a thousand entities, [ quantify ] into a more streamlined forty-state Confederation of the Rhine ; this helped promote the German Confederation and the unification of Germany in The movement toward national unification in Italy was similarly precipitated by Napoleonic rule. Napoleon implemented a wide array of liberal reforms in France and across Continental Europe, especially in Italy and Germany, as summarized by British historian Andrew Roberts :.

The ideas that underpin our modern world—meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, and so on—were championed, consolidated, codified and geographically extended by Napoleon. To them he added a rational and efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire.

Napoleon directly overthrew remnants of feudalism in much of western Continental Europe. He liberalized property laws , ended seigneurial dues , abolished the guild of merchants and craftsmen to facilitate entrepreneurship, legalized divorce, closed the Jewish ghettos and made Jews equal to everyone else. The Inquisition ended as did the Holy Roman Empire.

The power of church courts and religious authority was sharply reduced and equality under the law was proclaimed for all men. In the field of military organization , Napoleon borrowed from previous theorists such as Jacques Antoine Hippolyte, Comte de Guibert , and from the reforms of preceding French governments, and then developed much of what was already in place. He continued the policy, which emerged from the Revolution, of promotion based primarily on merit. Corps replaced divisions as the largest army units, mobile artillery was integrated into reserve batteries, the staff system became more fluid and cavalry returned as an important formation in French military doctrine.

These methods are now referred to as essential features of Napoleonic warfare. His opponents learned from Napoleon's innovations. The increased importance of artillery after stemmed from his creation of a highly mobile artillery force, the growth in artillery numbers, and changes in artillery practices. As a result of these factors, Napoleon, rather than relying on infantry to wear away the enemy's defences, now could use massed artillery as a spearhead to pound a break in the enemy's line that was then exploited by supporting infantry and cavalry.

McConachy rejects the alternative theory that growing reliance on artillery by the French army beginning in was an outgrowth of the declining quality of the French infantry and, later, France's inferiority in cavalry numbers. Napoleon's biggest influence was in the conduct of warfare. Antoine-Henri Jomini explained Napoleon's methods in a widely used textbook that influenced all European and American armies. Under Napoleon, a new emphasis towards the destruction, not just outmanoeuvring, of enemy armies emerged.

Invasions of enemy territory occurred over broader fronts which made wars costlier and more decisive. The political effect of war increased; defeat for a European power meant more than the loss of isolated enclaves. Near- Carthaginian peaces intertwined whole national efforts, intensifying the Revolutionary phenomenon of total war. The official introduction of the metric system in September was unpopular in large sections of French society.

Napoleon's rule greatly aided adoption of the new standard not only across France but also across the French sphere of influence. Napoleon's educational reforms laid the foundation of a modern system of education in France and throughout much of Europe. He made French the only official language. He left some primary education in the hands of religious orders, but he offered public support to secondary education.

All students were taught the sciences along with modern and classical languages.

The Romance of Joséphine and Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon hoped to use religion to produce social stability. In the political realm, historians debate whether Napoleon was "an enlightened despot who laid the foundations of modern Europe" or "a megalomaniac who wrought greater misery than any man before the coming of Hitler". The Continental powers as late as were willing to give him nearly all of his gains and titles, but some scholars maintain he was overly aggressive and pushed for too much, until his empire collapsed.

Napoleon ended lawlessness and disorder in post-Revolutionary France. His role in the Haitian Revolution and decision to reinstate slavery in France's overseas colonies are controversial and affect his reputation. Napoleon institutionalized plunder of conquered territories: French museums contain art stolen by Napoleon's forces from across Europe. Chandler , a historian of Napoleonic warfare, wrote in that, "Nothing could be more degrading to the former [Napoleon] and more flattering to the latter [Hitler].

The comparison is odious.

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On the whole Napoleon was inspired by a noble dream, wholly dissimilar from Hitler's Napoleon left great and lasting testimonies to his genius—in codes of law and national identities which survive to the present day. Adolf Hitler left nothing but destruction. Critics argue Napoleon's true legacy must reflect the loss of status for France and needless deaths brought by his rule: historian Victor Davis Hanson writes, "After all, the military record is unquestioned—17 years of wars, perhaps six million Europeans dead , France bankrupt, her overseas colonies lost.

British military historian Correlli Barnett calls him "a social misfit" who exploited France for his personal megalomaniac goals. He says Napoleon's reputation is exaggerated. Many historians have blamed Napoleon's poor planning, but Russian scholars instead emphasize the Russian response, noting the notorious winter weather was just as hard on the defenders. The large and growing historiography in French, English, Russian, Spanish and other languages has been summarized and evaluated by numerous scholars.

Strict censorship, controlling aspects of the press, books, theatre, and art, was part of his propaganda scheme, aimed at portraying him as bringing desperately wanted peace and stability to France. The propagandistic rhetoric changed in relation to events and to the atmosphere of Napoleon's reign, focusing first on his role as a general in the army and identification as a soldier, and moving to his role as emperor and a civil leader.

Specifically targeting his civilian audience, Napoleon fostered a relationship with the contemporary art community, taking an active role in commissioning and controlling different forms of art production to suit his propaganda goals. In England, Russia and across Europe—though not in France—Napoleon was a popular topic of caricature. Hazareesingh explores how Napoleon's image and memory are best understood. They played a key role in collective political defiance of the Bourbon restoration monarchy in — People from different walks of life and areas of France, particularly Napoleonic veterans, drew on the Napoleonic legacy and its connections with the ideals of the revolution.

Widespread rumours of Napoleon's return from St. Helena and Napoleon as an inspiration for patriotism, individual and collective liberties, and political mobilization manifested themselves in seditious materials, displaying the tricolor and rosettes. There were also subversive activities celebrating anniversaries of Napoleon's life and reign and disrupting royal celebrations—they demonstrated the prevailing and successful goal of the varied supporters of Napoleon to constantly destabilize the Bourbon regime.

Datta shows that, following the collapse of militaristic Boulangism in the late s, the Napoleonic legend was divorced from party politics and revived in popular culture. Reduced to a minor character, the new fictional Napoleon became not a world historical figure but an intimate one, fashioned by individuals' needs and consumed as popular entertainment. In their attempts to represent the emperor as a figure of national unity, proponents and detractors of the Third Republic used the legend as a vehicle for exploring anxieties about gender and fears about the processes of democratization that accompanied this new era of mass politics and culture.

International Napoleonic Congresses take place regularly, with participation by members of the French and American military, French politicians and scholars from different countries. Bonaparte Crossing the Alps , realist version by Paul Delaroche in Napoleon was responsible for spreading the values of the French Revolution to other countries, especially in legal reform and the abolition of serfdom.

After the fall of Napoleon, not only was the Napoleonic Code retained by conquered countries including the Netherlands, Belgium, parts of Italy and Germany, but has been used as the basis of certain parts of law outside Europe including the Dominican Republic, the US state of Louisiana and the Canadian province of Quebec. Napoleon could be considered one of the founders of modern Germany.

After dissolving the Holy Roman Empire , he reduced the number of German states from to less than 50, prior to German Unification.

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A byproduct of the French occupation was a strong development in German nationalism. Napoleon also significantly aided the United States when he agreed to sell the territory of Louisiana for 15 million dollars during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson. That territory almost doubled the size of the United States, adding the equivalent of 13 states to the Union. Bonaparte often sent her love letters while on his campaigns. She became known as "Cleopatra". Despite his divorce from Josephine, Napoleon showed his dedication to her for the rest of his life.


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When he heard the news of her death while on exile in Elba, he locked himself in his room and would not come out for two full days. Thus he had married into a German royal and imperial family. Her great-aunt had been executed in France, while Napoleon had fought numerous campaigns against Austria all throughout his military career. However, she seemed to warm up to him over time.

After her wedding, she wrote to her father: "He loves me very much. I respond to his love sincerely. There is something very fetching and very eager about him that is impossible to resist". Napoleon and Marie Louise remained married until his death, though she did not join him in exile on Elba and thereafter never saw her husband again. He became Napoleon II in and reigned for only two weeks. He was awarded the title of the Duke of Reichstadt in and died of tuberculosis aged 21, with no children. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about Napoleon I. For other uses, see Napoleon disambiguation. Robespierre calls for all Girondists to be indicted. Napoleon's boat is tossed by increasing waves. The Girondists seek to flee but are repulsed. A storm throws Napoleon back and forth in his boat. The assembly hall rolls with the struggle between Girondists and Montagnards. Napoleon grimly bails water to prevent his violently rocking boat from sinking.

The larger ship is steered to rescue the unknown boat, and as it is pulled close, Napoleon is recognised, lying unconscious at the bottom, gripping the French flag. Waking, Napoleon directs the ship to a cove in Corsica where the Buonaparte family is rescued. The ship sails for France carrying a future queen, three future kings, and the future Emperor of France.

The captain denies the request, saying that the target is too unimportant to waste powder and shot. As Le Hasard sails away, an eagle flies to the Buonapartes and lands on the ship's flag pole. Captain Napoleon is assigned to the artillery section and is dismayed by the obvious lack of French discipline. He confronts Carteaux in an inn run by Tristan Fleuri, formerly the scullion of Brienne. Napoleon advises Carteaux how best to engage the artillery against Toulon, but Carteaux is dismissive.

An enemy artillery shot hits the inn and scatters the officers. Fleuri's beautiful daughter Violine Fleuri Annabella admires Napoleon silently. Later, Napoleon sees a cannon being removed from a fortification and demands that it be returned.

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He fires a shot at the enemy, and establishes the position as the "Battery of Men Without Fear". French soldiers rally around Napoleon with heightened spirits. Dugommier advances Napoleon to the position of commander-in-chief of the artillery. French troops under Napoleon prepare for a midnight attack. Veteran soldier Moustache Henry Krauss tells 7-year-old Marcellin, now a drummer boy , that the heroic drummer boy Joseph Agricol Viala was 13 when he was killed in battle.

Marcellin takes courage; he expects to have six years of life left. Napoleon orders the attack forward amidst rain and high wind. Consequently, Dugommier orders Napoleon to cease attacking, but Napoleon discusses the matter with Dugommier and the attack is carried forward successfully despite Saliceti's warnings. English cannon positions are taken in bloody hand-to-hand combat, lit by lightning flashes and whipped by rain. Percy Day orders the burning of the moored French fleet before French troops can recapture the ships.

The next morning, Dugommier, seeking to promote Napoleon to the rank of brigadier general, finds him asleep, exhausted. An eagle beats its wings as it perches on a tree next to Napoleon. After being shamed in Toulon, Saliceti wants to put Napoleon on trial. Robespierre says he should be offered the command of Paris, but if he refuses he will be tried. Elsewhere, Napoleon is also imprisoned for refusing to serve under Robespierre. He works out the possibility of building a canal to Suez as Saliceti taunts him for not trying to form a legal defence.

Meanwhile, at the National Assembly, Violine with her little brother Marcellin, watches from the gallery. Voices are raised against Robespierre and Saint-Just. Violine decides not to shoot Saint-Just with a pistol she brought. Back at the archives, the prison clerks are given new dossiers on those to be executed by guillotine: Robespierre, Saint-Just and Couthon.

He is given a minor map-making command as punishment for refusing the greater post. He draws up plans for an invasion of Italy. Napoleon and Junot see the contrast of cold, starving people outside of wealthy houses. On 3 October Napoleon accepts, and supplies guns for defence. Di Borgo shoots at Napoleon but misses; di Borgo is then wounded by Fleuri's accidental musket discharge. Saliceti is prevented from escaping in disguise. Napoleon sets Saliceti and di Borgo free. Napoleon is made General in Chief of the Army of the Interior to great celebration. To amuse the attendees, Fleuri re-enacts the tragedy of the executioner's roll-call.

The dancers at the ball become uninhibited; the young women begin to dance partially nude. Later, Napoleon practises his amorous style under the guidance of his old friend Talma, the actor. Violine is greatly hurt to see Napoleon's attentions directed away from herself. Napoleon plans to invade Italy. Hurried preparations go forward. On the wedding day, 9 March , Napoleon is 2 hours late.

He is found in his room planning the Italian campaign, and the wedding ceremony is rushed. Violine prays to a shrine of Napoleon. In the next room, Violine kisses a shadowy figure of Napoleon that she has created from a doll. Just before leaving Paris, Napoleon enters the empty National Assembly hall at night, and sees the spirits of those who had set the Revolution in motion. The ghostly figures of Danton and Saint-Just speak to Napoleon, and demand answers from him regarding his plan for France. All the spirits sing "La Marseillaise". Only 48 hours after his wedding, Napoleon leaves Paris in a coach for Nice.

Napoleon speeds to Albenga on horseback to find the army officers resentful and the soldiers starving. He orders a review of the troops. The troops respond quickly to the commanding presence of Napoleon and bring themselves to perfect attention. Fleuri, now a soldier, tries and fails to get a hint of recognition from Napoleon. The Army of Italy is newly filled with fighting spirit.

Napoleon encourages them for the coming campaign into Italy, the "honour, glory and riches" which will be theirs upon victory. The underfed and poorly armed force advances into Montenotte and takes the town. Further advances carry Napoleon to Montezemolo. The French troops move forward triumphantly as the vision of an eagle fills their path, a vision of the blue, white and red French flag waving before them. The film features Gance's interpretation of the birth of the song " La Marseillaise ", the national anthem of France.

In the film, the French singer Maryse Damia portrays the spirit of the song. During the Paris Opera premiere, the song was sung live by Alexandre Koubitzky to accompany the Cordeliers scene. Koubitzky played Danton in the film but he was also a well-known singer. Gance had earlier asked Koubitzky and Damia to sing during the filming of the Cordeliers scene to inspire the cast and extras. The majority of the film is accompanied by incidental music. For this material, the original score was composed by Arthur Honegger in in France.

A separate score was written by Werner Heymann in Germany, also in In pace with Brownlow's efforts to restore the movie to something close to its incarnation, two scores were prepared in —; one by Carl Davis in the UK and one by Carmine Coppola in the US. He composed three original themes: an heroic one for Napoleon, a love theme for scenes with Josephine, and a Buonaparte family theme. Coppola returns to "La Marseillaise" as the finale. Coppola's score was heard first in New York at Radio City Music Hall performed for very nearly four hours, accompanying a film projected at 24 frames per second as suggested by producer Robert A.

Working quickly from September , Davis arranged a score based on selections of classical music; especially the Eroica Symphony by Beethoven who had initially admired Napoleon as a liberator, and had dedicated the symphony to Napoleon. Fails miserably, of course. He makes a brief wordless cameo at the very end of the film version of Scaramouche. Bonaparte himself is a secondary character. However, Dumas on a personal level disliked Napoleon because of his conflict with his father, General Thomas-Alexandre Dumas.

The battle is described in detail in the book. The author Stendhal was a soldier in Napoleon's Italian campaign and naturally has a rather high opinion of him. He regarded post-Napoleonic France under the Bourbons as two-faced, hypocritical and reactionary. In his famous The Charterhouse of Parma he describes the Battle of Waterloo in one of the most realistic battle scenes ever written. This inspired Tolstoy. He and his invasion of Russia plays a big role in War and Peace.

Tolstoy tells his low opinion on him in his Author Tracts. Though he never appears onscreen, much of the first part of the book has the magicians using their magic to aid the British army against Napoleon. He's a bit Ambiguously Bi , as well, given his unresolved sexual tension with Henri, his small, young male chef. A significant background figure in the Temeraire series, and starts making personal appearances from the third book on.

Sharpe : Sharpe meets him in exile on St Helena in Sharpe's Devil ; despite having fought his armies for years, Sharpe takes quite a liking to l'Empereur. Lord Cochrane plans to bust him out of the island and set him up as Emperor of a "United States of South America", but Napoleon died before they could try. The second sentence consists of real, historical events. Horatio Hornblower : Also significantly in the background of the series. His death is a plot point in one of the later books.

He's introduced as a Corsica colonel who was stationed in Canada by France's monarchist government , but later succeeds in uniting Western Europe under one government possibly permanently. He's said to have a supernatural "knack" for making people obey him and seeing others' intentions. Live-Action TV. In Red Dwarf Rimmer is very much an admirer of Napoleon. In the episode "Better Than Life", Rimmer meets a simulation of Napoleon and gets his autograph, much to Rimmer's elation and to Lister's amusement.

Sharpe : Sharpe saw him briefly through the powder smoke at Waterloo. It was the most expensive miniseries made in Europe at the time. In Bewitched , he was summoned to the present by accident after a failed attempt to create a Napolean pastry using magic. Appeared in I Dream of Jeannie after Tony expressed how he'd have wanted to have talked to him; Jeannie takes him too literally, and transports them back to Napolean's time period so he can do so.

Went up against and lost to George Washington during season 3 of Deadliest Warrior. Napoleon's numerous romances were the subject of the aforementioned British TV miniseries Napoleon and Love. Blackadder's time machine accidentally landed on and killed the Duke of Wellington, handing Napoleon the victory and guaranteeing French dominance over Britain.

He manages to set it right on a second try. The television miniseries Napoleon and Love , where he's played by Ian Holm. Ludwig van Beethoven dedicated his third symphony to Napoleon when he was First Consul. When he heard the news that Napoleon declared himself emperor, he crossed out the title and dedication in a rage, allegedly exclaiming: " So he is no more than a common mortal!

Now, too, he will tread under foot all the rights of man, indulge only his ambition; now he will think himself superior to all men, become a tyrant! Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky composed his famous Ouverture to commemorate Russia's victory on Napoleon's army. A reproduction of Napoleon sitting on his chair, painted by Eugene Delaroche, can be seen on the wall behind Bill Cosby on the cover of his album I Started Out as a Child.

Napoleon Complex by The Divine Comedy plays him up as a ruthless dictator, as though he had something to prove. Who was the true inventor of The infamous circular firing squad? Who has all the brains, But none of the stature? Video Games. The young Napoleon appears in Assassin's Creed: Unity. He and main character Arno run into each other when they raid Louis XVI's office at the same time and strike up a friendship of sorts. Impressively, in a series where everyone was part of the two warring ancient conspiracies, Napoleon managed to become emperor on his own.

He's the star and central character of Napoleon: Total War.


  • The Christian State of Life.
  • Napoleon's Italy: Desmond Gregory.
  • Napoléon ( film) - Wikipedia.
  • Napoleon and the Corsican Dilemma – part 1.
  • It was possible to kill him in the final mission of the English campaign in Empire Earth. In skirmish games, he's the Industrial era's Warrior hero, giving a huge defense boost to nearby units. In V , he's an incredible backstabber; no matter how well you get along, if you show weakness, the French army will swarm your borders. A really cartoony version, looking like a large blue bird, appears in Psychonauts. He took over Fred Bonaparte, his descendant's mind, as an unwanted Split Personality , causing a halfway Napoleon Delusion.

    Weirdly it gets some of the Napoleonic details correct including his death by stomach cancer and that upon being defeated he gives you Worthy Opponent tributes. There is an English fan translation patch for the French version though. It's one of the very few RTS games on the system and it actually works very well. It does take some liberties how appropriate with the story though, since Napoleon's army ends up fighting yetis and ogres later on. He goes on to be the Big Bad. Its name is a combination of emperor as in both The Emperor and "emperor penguin" , pole as in "South Pole" In Vampire Night , Bathe'lemy is inspired by and modeled after Napoleon, given that the story is set in an alternate version of the modern-day France where that still akin to The French Revolution.

    He is one of the earnable battle arena characters in Elemental Story. Unlike most popular culture, he's depicted as a tall, buff man, not a shorty. However, it is implied that if he's summoned as a Rider, he will appear short. Web Comics. The Inexplicable Adventures of Bob! Napoleon is a reoccurring character in Hark! A Vagrant. Initially drawn entirely normal-sized for his first appearance, he is later drawn comically small because it's funny. One comic mentions the origins of falsely regarding Napoleon as short while still portraying him as comically short , which caused one soldier to be terrified of the The Duke of Wellington 's size by a leap of logic.

    Web Original. Look to the West : Napoleon proper doesn't exist, but an alternate history sibling of his is taken with his family when they flee Corsica for England. There he is bestowed with the Anglicized name "Leo Bone. And much crosstime irony is had for all. There are timeslines on AlternateHistory.